We just came back from a study trip to Istanbul. The reason for the trip was to experience and immerse in a city that has an infinite layering of complex systems, each neighborhood being economically culturally and socially different. Where else would you stumble upon this glad gang I spotted in the Istiklal Caddesi one late night, dancing around a bag pipe player.
Any infrastructure one looks at is composed out of layers spanning from the simplest to the most advanced. E.g. Looking at traffic systems a ride from the south Eminönu to the north (Levent) stats with the most modern tram, continues with a steep uphill ride with the second oldest tube in the world then goes on with a really antique little tram along the main shopping street of Istklal Caddesi and ends with a ride on the most modern tube system. In such ways almost any aspect can be investigated, like the thickly layered systems of trade and retail. Below showing a few of the shop fronts in the city.
To see more pictures from our tour here